GEOGRAPHY IN ACTION
This elective, Geography in Action, is designed to actively engage students in geography and demonstrate the applications of geography through travel and tourism. Tourism is an inherently geographic activity. Tourists leave home, travel through space to reach a destination, interact with economic, cultural, and physical landscapes at that destination, and finally return home with a wide range of geographic experiences and images. Tourism and travel is the world's largest transnational industry, profoundly affecting economies and cultures in both developed and developing nations. Tourism is one of the largest employers in the United States, providing jobs to one in eight people. In 2000, approximately 43 million people visited North Carolina. They spent over $12 billion, making tourism the second largest industry in the state. This course will examine tourism as a geographic phenomenon of global, national, and local importance, building upon the National Geography Standards as a pedagogical framework. The course will assist students in identifying where tourism development takes place, why tourism takes place where it does, the different types of tourism, and how and why tourism affects people and places throughout the world. A critical understanding of tourism and its impact will cultivate geographic literacy, cross-cultural sensitivity, and an appreciation of the interdependent nature of economic and social systems.
Strands: Critical Thinking Skills, Mapping and Spatial Analysis Skills, Project-Oriented Learning, Analysis of Economic and Cultural Interdependence, Analysis of Social Relations, Analysis of Human/Environmental Interaction
|Competency Goal 1||The learner will understand the growing importance of tourism to global, national, statewide, and local economic development. (Builds upon National Geography Standard 11: The geographical informed person knows and understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence.)|
1.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the history of travel in the world and the United States, noting the conditions that led to the emergence of the modern tourist.
1.02 Collect and analyze tourism statistics such as employment and revenue generated by tourism.
1.03 Summarize the importance of tourism to the world economy, the United States economy, and North Carolina economy.
1.04 Identify and describe examples of tourism development in local area.
1.05 Discuss the interconnections between global, national, and local tourism economies.
|Competency Goal 2||The learner will identify major tourist flows in the world and locate various countries, major cities, natural attractions, and historic sites of tourist importance. (Builds upon National Geography Standard 4: The geographically-informed person knows and understands the physical and human characteristics of place.)|
2.01 Define the concept of spatial movement and flow.
2.02 Identify different types of movement; differentiate between permanent migration and temporary travel patterns, including tourism.
2.03 Identify different types of tourist movement or flow in the world such as coastal tourism; park tourism; agricultural tourism; mountain/upland tourism; urban tourism; ethnic tourism; indigenous tourism, adventure tourism, and heritage tourism.
2.04 Identify the location and characteristics, physical and human, of important tourist places for each region of the world.
2.05 Demonstrate ability to plan a two-week, theme vacation around the world with itinerary, transportation, estimated costs, list of countries and sites to visit, and reasons for visiting.
2.06 Identify the location and characteristics, physical and human, of important tourist places in North Carolina.
2.07 Demonstrate ability to plan a one-week, theme vacation around North Carolina with itinerary, transportation, estimated costs, list of counties, cities, and sites to visit, and reasons for visiting.
|Competency Goal 3||The learner will use maps and other geographic tools, such as GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to identify, describe, and interpret major international travel patterns as related to the United States. (Builds upon National Geography Standard 1: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.)|
3.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the various types of thematic maps.
3.02 Demonstrate a working knowledge of GIS and other map-making tools.
3.03 Construct a map showing country origin of international tourist's arrivals into the United States.
3.04 Construct a map showing country destination of international travelers from United States.
3.05 Summarize major travel-generating areas for tourism into the United States and major travel-receiving areas for tourists from the United States.
3.06 Demonstrate an understanding of the "uneven geographic nature" of tourism that result in some countries being visited more frequently than others.
3.07 Discuss factors affecting travel to countries such as distance, political/international relations, cultural environment, and attitude of governments toward tourism.
|Competency Goal 4||The learner will use maps and
other geographic tools such as GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to
identify, describe, and interpret major intra-national travel patterns
as related to North Carolina.
(Builds upon National Geography Standard 1: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.)
4.01 Identify differences in traveling internationally versus within one's own country.
4.02 Use a map to locate places of personal touristic importance and experience.
4.03 Construct a map showing state origin of tourists visiting North Carolina.
4.04 Construct maps showing state origin of tourists visiting other states.
4.05 Identify and compare major travel-generating states for tourism into North Carolina with major travel-generating states for tourism into other states.
4.06 Explain factors affecting similarities and differences in tourism patterns in North Carolina versus other states.
4.07 Construct a map showing North Carolina counties with the most and least amount of revenue and jobs generated by tourism.
4.08 Discuss how the geography of North Carolina tourism reflects an unevenness and identify reasons for and consequences of some counties engaging in tourism more than others.
|Competency Goal 5||The learner will understand mental
maps and recognize how mental maps shape people's willingness and unwillingness
to travel to certain places.
(Builds upon National Geography Standard 2: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments.)
5.01 Define concept of mental map and identify different types
5.02 Identify factors that shape a person's mental map such as the mass media, geographic education, prejudices, and travel experience.
5.03 Explain how and why a positive or negative mental map of a place can affect a person's decision to travel.
5.04 Construct and use a public opinion survey to measure local perception of places, both of great tourist importance and of lesser tourist importance.
5.05 Use a graphing program and other computer resources to visually represent survey results.
5.06 Participate in a class presentation and discussion of results, factors affecting surveyed perceptions, the accuracy of those perceptions, and the impact of those perceptions on potential travel.
|Competency Goal 6||The learner will understand the
importance of place images in tourism, how places are sold or represented
as tourist destinations, and how these shape people's perception and interaction
with the world.
(Builds upon National Geography Standard 6: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how culture and experience influence people's perception of places.)
6.01 Define the concept of "place image" and identify different types.
6.02 Discuss how and why places are sold or represented as attractive destinations.
6.03 Summarize the importance of advertising to tourism development.
6.04 Identify major place image themes found in tourism advertising including, but not limited to, location/proximity, naturalness, escapism, authenticity, climate, and hospitality.
6.05 Search for and obtain examples of place images found in tourism advertising including, but not limited to, travel brochures, newspaper and magazine ads, television and radio commercials, and Internet travel agencies.
6.06 Analyze place images in tourist advertising; identify themes and symbols used, generalizations, and possible inaccuracies and omissions.
6.07 Construct and present an advertising narrative using graphics and slogans that could be used in selling or representing one's hometown as a tourist destination.
6.08 Compare and contrast different promotional images of hometown, recognizing the different ways of seeing a place as a tourist destination.
|Competency Goal 7||The learner will develop an understanding of how tourism affects the economy of places. (Builds upon National Geography Standard 12: The geographically-informed person knows and understands the process, patterns, and functions of human settlement.)|
7.01 Recognize that tourism has power to generate foreign exchange, create employment, and stimulate economies in industrialized and developing countries.
7.02 Recognize the costs of hosting tourists, such as the building of hotels, increased law enforcement, construction of attractions, and transportation routes.
7.03 Define and explain the "multiplier effect" of tourism, how the monetary benefits of tourism development spread through a destination's local population directly and indirectly.
7.04 Define and explain the opportunities that tourism brings to a destination's local economy.
7.05 Identify positive aspects of tourism economy within hometown.
7.06 Define and explain the "reverse multiplier effect" of tourism, how the tourist economy can raise the price of goods and services for a destination's local population.
7.07 Define and explain the "opportunity costs," how investment in tourism diverts revenue away from funding other opportunities in a destination's local economy.
7.08 Identify negative aspects of tourism economy in a hometown.
|Competency Goal 8||The learner will examine how
tourism affects social relations in a place and identify the various social
actors involved in the tourism experience.
(Builds upon National geography Standard 13: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface.)
8.01 Identify three major social actors involved in tourism: host, tourist, and mediator.
8.02 Identify the various types of host such as active, passive, and resistant, and explain the various ways in which a host can interact with a tourist, both positively and negatively.
8.03 Identify the various types of tourist and explain the various ways in which a tourist can see, treat and interact with a host, both positively and negatively.
8.04 Explain ways in which the tourist experience is characterized by cooperation and conflict between "insider" (host) and "outsider" (tourist) interests.
8.05 Identify the complex role that mediators play in the tourism experiences, such as the role of travel guides/agents.
8.06 Discuss how tourism encourages the local population of a tourist destination to express, celebrate, and even preserve their cultural identity.
8.07 Discuss how tourism discourages the local population of a tourist destination from expressing their real cultural identity.
8.08 Recognize how political situations can exercise a negative or positive influence on tourists through currency policy, violence against visitors, and government contribution to tourism organizations.
|Competency Goal 9||
The learner will analyze how tourism affects the environmental/physical geography of a place, leading to both environmental deterioration and environmental conservation. (Builds upon National Geography Standard 14: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how human actions modify the physical environment.)
9.01 Summarize the importance of outdoor recreation within tourism as a whole.
9.02 Identify and locate natural activities and attractions sought after by tourists.
9.03 Identify the environmental costs of tourism such as increased use of resources and increased pollution.
9.04 Summarize the history of the national park system in the United States and identify the positive and negative environmental consequences of park tourism.
9.05 Define the concept of "sustainability" and discuss the promotion of ecotourism as a cleaner, more sustainable form of tourism.
9.06 Identify examples of ecotourism themes and locations around the world, the United States, and North Carolina.
9.07 Identify how tourism can encourage the conservation and preservation of plants, animals, habitats, and traditional indigenous cultures.
|Competency Goal 10||
The learner will critically evaluate the impact of tourism on people and places by examining international, national, statewide, and local case studies.
(Builds upon National Geography Standard 18: The geographically-informed person knows and understands how to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.)
10.01 Research and evaluate the role of tourism in selected countries in the Western and Eastern Hemisphere.
10.02 Research and evaluate the role of tourism on Native American Reservations.
10.03 Research and evaluate the role of community festivals in North Carolina.
10.04 Research and evaluate the role of tourism in one's hometown.