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Title IX is most well-known for increasing women's participation in sports. In 1971, only 294,015 girls participated in high school athletics. According to the U.S. Department of Education, today, over 2.7 million girls participate in high school athletics, an 847 percent increase. However, males are still the majority of high school and college athletes.

But, Title IX is not just about sports. It prohibits discrimination against girls and boys, women and men, students and employees, in all levels of education. In accordance with the 1987 Civil Rights Restoration Act, it applies to all education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. For example, it prohibits sex discrimination in facilities, access to courses, career guidance, student financial aid, health and insurance benefits, employment in educational institutions, and sexual harassment. In addition to schools and colleges, it covers scientific laboratories, prisons, museums, and a variety of other public and private institutions.


A new report issued by the National Women's Law Center compiles data from twelve states that show that high school girls continue to be dramatically under-represented in career and technical education courses that are nontraditional for their gender.

The North Carolina Toolkit provides a customized roadmap for girls, their parents and advocates, educational professionals and state personnel to apply their laws to improve opportunities for girls to participate in nontraditional training.

Title IX and Gender Equity Responsibilities of State Education Agencies (SEAs)
Every State Education Agency (SEA) that receives federal education funds is required by Title IX of The Education Amendments of 1972 to have a designee responsible for Title IX.

Brief No. 1: Current Title IX Policies are Essential to Implement Title IX's Guarantee of Equal Opportunity
by Jocelyn Samuels, Vice President, Education, National Women's Law Center

Notice of Nondiscrimination
A pamphlet for LEA Title IX Coordinators that describes the requirements and provides a sample of notice of nondiscrimination. (Distributed at the Title IX training for LEA Title IX Coordinators on September 27, 2005).
(pdf, 224kb)


FedLaw provides access to legal resources and information, including civil rights and equal opportunity legislation.

Legal Information Insititute – Supreme Court Decisions
The Legal Information Institute offers Supreme Court opinions issued since May, 1990.


Title IX
A website that explains Title IX regulations in easy-to-understand language and uses real case studies as examples.

Association for Gender Equity Leadership in Education
Formerly the National Coalition for Sex Equity in Education, provides leadership in identifying and infusing gender equity in educational programs.

Office of Civil Rights
A link to the U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights.